11 Feb Cooking is a combination of methods for preparing from food
To prepare tasty and healthy food, you need to acquire certain skills in culinary arts and cooking technology.
It is known that starch is the most necessary food component. However, it is raw (for example, flour, rice, potatoes, peas, beans) is not absorbed by the human body. Any product containing starch is digested only after gelatinization, and this is achieved by heat treatment – cooking.
Heat treatment of foods increases the digestibility of food and disinfects it. Starch after gelatinization in the human body under the action of enzymes (amylase) quickly and completely turns into sugar.
The technology of cooking with the help of heat treatment promotes a chemical change in the composition of protein substances, both vegetable and animal.
The protein, like sugar substances, is a necessary component of food. But to accelerate protein metabolism, foods containing protein (meat, egg, milk, dough, beans, etc.) need to be heated. This facilitates their assimilation.
Daily we eat together with other food and fats. Vegetable and animal fats are poorly digested and not even digested if they are not processed by the appropriate technology. Such technology is curing, boiling fat. At a curing, any fat is liquefied, acquires a tender taste, some toxic substances are destroyed.
The boiling point of different fats ranges from 160 to 180 ° C. However, excessive and prolonged heating of fats can lead to the decomposition of molecules, which lowers the taste of the prepared dish
Proper processing of products improves digestibility and preserves vitamins. The culinary specialist should know that some vitamins, for example A and D, only dissolve fat, while others, such as B and C, dissolve easily in water.
When cooking vegetables and fruits, their useful properties decrease: a part of vitamins evaporates together with water vapor and, on the contrary, during the heat treatment some products in the result of the decomposition of substances acquire flavor and improve their taste qualities.
Fire also changes the appearance of the prepared dish. Solid products (mainly during cooking) are softened, and soft products (mainly when roasting) harden, etc.
Culinary should know that, for example, a white pigment in the composition of rice when cooking pilaf and other dishes under the influence of dietary acids undergoes an alkaline reaction and becomes yellowish in color.
If you need to cook white rice porridge, then add a few drops of a solution of citric acid or juice. This white rice pigment will retain its transparent appearance.
Sometimes broth or soup when cooking is covered with a hazy film. To avoid it, a few drops of fat are added to the broth.
Or another example: the peeled potatoes begin to darken. The culinary specialist should know the reason for this process: the organic substance phenol present in potatoes is oxidized under the influence of air, and this, in turn, worsens the taste and appearance of the product. Therefore, peeled potatoes should be kept in cold water.
But if the potatoes are left in the water for a long time, some of the starch passes into water and neutralizes ascorbic acid, i.e., vitamin C. And to prevent this, potatoes are doused with boiling water or citric acid is added to cold potatoes.
The cook can make certain kinds of bacteria, and microorganisms “work” for themselves – for example, in the preparation of sour milk, dough, grape wine, vinegar, beer, kumys, etc.
But there are microorganisms that are direct enemies of man. To destroy them, the cook creates such conditions (heat, cold or acid, salty, sweet, bitter medium), in which the development of pathogenic microbes stops.
Microbes can be in improperly cooked dishes, raw foods, uncleaned tools, in kitchen contaminated linen, in unwashed fruits and vegetables, in stale food, i.e., where sanitation and hygiene rules are violated.